March 15, 2013
Otaviano Canuto – Huffington Post, 02/27/2013
WB President Jim Yong Kim’s recent Washington Post op-ed “Make Climate Change a Priority” warned that “global warming imperils all of the development gains we have made.” Jim Kim drew on a recent World Bank report that points to the possibility for global temperatures to rise by 4 degrees Celsius or more by the end of the century, with severe natural, economic and social impacts.
Jim Kim’s call is all the more urgent given how grim are actual trends on efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Growth in world carbon emissions from energy use in the 2000s more than tripled compared to the 1990s, averaging 3 percent a year. After repeated failures in negotiations, the goal of a global agreement on mitigation feels to be even further away today than 20 years ago. With current battles over fiscal policy, U.S. government spending on energy R&D is expected to fall rather than rise in coming years. Many experts have concluded that the aim of keeping global temperature increases down to 2 degrees Celsius or less (roughly equal to an atmospheric concentration of equivalent carbon dioxide of 450 ppm or less) is now simply no longer feasible.A study by the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum found that in most cases its models simply could not solve for a 450 ppm scenario.
November 15, 2012
Jonathan Watts – The Guardian, 11/15/2012
The debate on whether the world needs stronger greenhouse gas cuts to keep the planet from warming by 2C should be deferred until next year, according to Brazil‘s lead negotiator at the upcoming talks in Doha.
Ambassador Luiz Alberto Figueiredo says delegates at Qatar – the most important climate negotiations of the year – should prioritise an extension of the Kyoto protocol and the rules for a longer-term agreement rather than be distracted by the crucial but contentious issue of emissions reductions.
Environmental groups, however, are calling for greater urgency from Brazil, a country that has won plaudits at previous gatherings for leading the search for common ground between wealthy and developing nations.
With the Kyoto protocol set to expire at the end of the year, Figueiredo told the Guardian there is an urgent need to ensure the continuation of a process that has been the foundation of international discussions for more than a decade, despite its shrinking support among the initial signatories.
October 2, 2012
Brian Winters – Reuters, 10/01/2012
Major emerging economies’ obligations to cut emissions under a climate change agreement should not be the same as those of rich countries, Brazil’s chief negotiator said, signaling a retreat to an old position that has hamstrung years of U.N. negotiations.
Ambassador Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado told Reuters during last week’s U.N. General Assembly that Brazil is committed to working toward a global pact to cut emissions in both developed and developing nations as agreed at last year’s climate talks in Durban, South Africa.
But Figueiredo said that agreement should adhere to the U.N.’s principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities,” a line between developing and developed countries drawn in 1992 that enabled countries such as Brazil, China and India to escape mandatory carbon cuts, which the Durban summit had supposedly eliminated.
September 21, 2012
AP/The Washington Post, 09/20/2012
Representatives of Brazil, South Africa, India and China are meeting to define a common position ahead of November’s United Nations’ climate change conference in Doha.
The four countries form the bloc known as BASIC that acts jointly in international climate change meetings.
Brazilian negotiator Luiz Alberto Figueiredo says one of the main topics being discussed in the meeting that ends on Friday is the future of the 1997 emission- limiting Kyoto Protocol that requires industrialized countries to slash emissions.
January 18, 2012
Bryan Walsh – TIME, 01/18/2012
Deforestation in the Brazilian rain forest is slowing, but it's still happening—with major consequences for the global environment. Credit: LatinContent/Getty Images
I’d say you have to see the Amazon for yourself to understand how vast it is, but I’ve been there—and even I can’t imagine it. The rain forest is more than 2 million sq. miles—two-thirds the size of the continental United States—and the river system of the gigantic basin produces 20% of the world’s freshwater discharge. The forest holds 100 billion metric tons of carbon—equivalent to more than 10 years’ worth of global fossil-fuel emissions. And the Amazon is the global capital of wildlife biodiversity, with more species calling the forest and rivers home than scientists could ever hope to name. It’s safe to say that as the Amazon goes, so goes the planet’s environment.
The problem is that the Amazon is anything but secure. As Amazon basin nations like Brazil have grown economically, they’ve moved to cut down the forest, making room for agriculture. (Which, it should be noted, is exactly what Americans did to their own once vast Eastern forests.) The human population in the Brazilian Amazon has grown from 6 million in 1960 to 25 million in 2010, while forest cover has declined to about 80% of its original area. Deforestation rates have slowed in recent years, but as a new review in this week’s Nature shows, the Amazon basin is changing, under pressure from natural variability in the weather, drought, global warming and deforestation. The question remains: just how resilient is the Amazon?
From the Nature article, written by Eric Davidson of the Woods Hole Research Center and his colleagues:
May 25, 2011
Brazil is one of the world's biggest agricultural producers
Brazil’s Chamber of Deputies has voted to ease restrictions on the amount of land farmers must preserve as forest.
The amended law also grants some amnesties for previous deforestation.
Supporters say Brazil needs land to boost agricultural production, while environmentalists say destruction of the Amazon rainforest will increase.
February 15, 2011
Rodrigo Nunes – The Guardian, 02/15/2011
Indigenous people and social movements from the Amazonian region affected by the Belo Monte dam protest in front of the presidential palace in Brasilia. Photo: Eduardo Seidl
I recently witnessed a conversation between someone working for the Brazilian federal government and an environmentalist; both were Workers’ party (PT) supporters (the ruling party of President Dilma Rousseff).
“I’m in favour of the construction of the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant,” the former said, “but I concede it’s not a ‘left versus right’ issue.”
“It isn’t,” the latter replied. “Or if it is, maybe the left isn’t who you think.”
February 9, 2011
Fabiana Frayssinet – CNN, 02/09/2011
Members of the Caiapo tribe paint themselves during the protest in Brasilia, Brazil. Photo: AFP/Getty Images
Environmentalists and indigenous-rights supporters gathered in the Brazilian capital Tuesday to protest a hydroelectric dam project that they say would be devastating to the Amazon region.
The demonstration, in front the congressional building in Brasilia, seeks to stop the construction of the Belo Monte dam, which they say would flood at least 400,000 hectares (nearly a million acres) of forest, displacing 40,000 indigenous people and other local residents, and destroying various species of wildlife and insects.
The construction of the controversial reservoir — a $17 billion project — was authorized in January by Brazil’s Environmental Institute.
December 9, 2010
Brazil Climate Negotiator, Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado. Photographer: Morin/AFP/Getty Images
Kim Chipman and Jim Efstathiou Jr. – Bloomberg, 12/09/2010
Brazil, appointed by the United Nations to help defuse a dispute between rich and poor countries regarding greenhouse gas emission reductions, said it’s optimistic an agreement can be reached.
“We are exploring language that could hopefully bridge pointed gaps and that may resolve the issue,” Brazil’s climate negotiator Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado said. “We are working very hard. It is not over yet. I am optimistic, cautiously optimistic.”
The rift marred the UN’s annual conference on fighting climate change, due to end tomorrow in Cancun, Mexico. Japan last night hardened its opposition to extending limits on fossil fuel emissions set under the Kyoto Protocol, which expires in 2012. China, India and South Africa say new pledges under that 1997 accord are essential.
November 12, 2010
Natalia Viana – The Guardian, 11/12/2010
By the end of October, navigating the river Negro in the Amazon was quite risky. Hudson Andre, a boat driver, had to be double careful to avoid being stuck in one of the sand banks that could be seen everywhere.
Seasonal rains fell a month later than usual, and the region went through the worst drought in the last century. The river Negro was 15m lower than it should be. “I had never seen it this low,” he says.
Boats were unable to reach many riverside villages. Thousands of riverside communities were isolated. They suffered with lack of supplies. Manoel Cunha, a rubber-tapper leader, said people also suffered because they could not reach hospitals in nearby cities. Some had to face long hours being carried across the land in hammocks if they needed emergency care.
“In my community a guy died after being bitten by a snake. I am sure he would have been saved if he’d been transported by boat,” said Cunha.