The Brazil Institute, 05/26/2016
Dom Phillips and Nick Miroff – The Washington Post, 05/22/2016
Signs of a rightward turn by Brazil’s new government have alarmed conservationists and climate change activists who fear a rollback of environmental laws that could accelerate deforestation in the Amazon basin.
With Brazil’s economy in its worst slump since the 1930s, new leader Michel Temer took power this month promising a more business-friendly agenda to spur growth. Temer named a conservative-leaning cabinet whose members include figures with close ties to powerful landowners and agribusiness companies.
Temer has taken control in South America’s largest nation — and the world’s biggest rain forest — at a time when Brazilian lawmakers are considering a major overhaul of environmental laws. This includes a controversial constitutional amendment known as PEC 65 that would reduce licensing requirements for development projects and limit judicial oversight of their impact.
Paulo Prada – Reuters, 04/02/2015
The farmers of Brazil have become the world’s top exporters of sugar, orange juice, coffee, beef, poultry and soybeans. They’ve also earned a more dubious distinction: In 2012, Brazil passed the United States as the largest buyer of pesticides.
This rapid growth has made Brazil an enticing market for pesticides banned or phased out in richer nations because of health or environmental risks.
At least four major pesticide makers – U.S.-based FMC Corp., Denmark’s Cheminova A/S, Helm AG of Germany and Swiss agribusiness giant Syngenta AG – sell products here that are no longer allowed in their domestic markets, a Reuters review of registered pesticides found.
The Brazil Institute is counting down to this year’s FAPESP Week (November 17-21), organized in collaboration with the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), UC Berkeley, and UC Davis. The symposium aims at strengthening the links between scientists from Brazil and the U.S. with the objective of promoting research partnerships. Find out more about the 2014 FAPESP Week in California here.
Carlos Fioravanti – Pesquisa FAPESP, 2014 Print Edition, Published in September 2013
An atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide (CO2)—as our atmosphere is expected to be in the coming decades as a consequence of continued emissions of gases resulting from the burning of forests and fossil fuels—could benefit the production of coffee, one of Brazil’s principal agricultural crops, and perhaps neutralize the loss in productivity caused by the increase in temperature and the intensification of droughts and floods, according to the initial results obtained from an experimental crop grown at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) facility in Jaguariúna.
For two years, coffee plants maintained in six octagons measuring 10 meters in diameter received doses of CO2 at a concentration of 550 parts per million (ppm), simulating the atmosphere as it might be at the end of this century, when atmospheric CO2 could be as high as 760 ppm. Coffee plants grown in six other octagons receive only the level of atmospheric CO2 prevailing today, a concentration of 440 ppm (see Pesquisa FAPESP Issue No. 198). Comparatively, the plants that received more CO2—controlled by means of sensors activated automatically according to the direction and speed of the wind—are taller and have longer branches, a thicker stem, and larger leaves.
The coffee plants that received more CO2 also produced more coffee cherries, according to Raquel Ghini, coordinator of the project entitled Effects of high atmospheric CO2 concentration in open top chambers and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (face) systems on photosynthesis and natural resistance mechanisms of coffee plants to coffee rust. According to Ghini, it is too soon to announce the final gain in productivity because it represents the results from only one harvest. Since coffee plants alternate years of high and low productivity, “we need at least two harvests to obtain more consistent values,” she says. The quality of the beans is being assessed by experts from the Campinas Institute of Agronomy.
Article and photo courtesy of Revista Pesquisa FAPESP.
Emiko Terazono – Financial Times, 09/07/2014
Divining the health of branches, floral buds and roots of coffee trees in Brazil has become key to millions of dollars being made or lost after a devastating drought hit the country at the start of the year. Recent discussions among roasters, analysts and hedge fund managers have focused on coffee agronomy, says Keith Flury, head of research at Volcafe, the coffee division of commodities traders ED & F Man.
“Given the unprecedented drought, industry and trade have had to increase knowledge about moisture deficits and the impacts on plants,” he says.
Brazil is the largest coffee producer in the world, accounting for about 35 per cent of all output. In the past, the main weather problems for the country’s coffee growers have been frosts – few farmers and traders have had to deal with the consequences of heat and dryness.
Anthony Boadle and Paul Simao – Reuters, 08/30/2014
Environmentalist Marina Silva unveiled her campaign platform for Brazil’s Oct. 5 presidential election on Friday, boosted by government data that showed the economy had fallen into a recession in the first half of this year.
Following are her main policy proposals aimed at restoring business confidence and investment in Brazil and putting the country on a path to sustainable growth:
ECONOMY: Return to the basic tripod of policies that gave Brazil financial stability a decade and a half ago: fiscal discipline, inflation targeting and a floating exchange rate, ending central bank intervention that has overvalued the real currency.
A leading sugar banker cautioned over this year’s drought in Brazil’s Centre South region hitting cane crops in 2015-16 too as he forecast a wave of mergers among mills, their financial prospects further undermined by the crop downturn.
Alexandre Figliolino, director at Banco Itau BBA, said that the cane harvest in Brazil’s Centre South, responsible for 90% of the domestic crop, could fall to 550m tonnes this season, following the drought which hit the region early in the year.
The forecast, down from 596m tonnes in 2013-14, compares with an estimate of 560m tonnes from Datagro and 575m tonnes from Kingsman, although Canaplan has a forecast of 540m tonnes.